Animal welfare

A top priority for organic farmers

Animal welfare requirements are part of every organic standard and often even go beyond the EU organic regulation’s requirements. Organic farmers focus on ethical responsibility, long-term productivity and high product quality. Good animal health and welfare of all farm animals are central to their activities.

Amélie Steu
Policy Assistant on the CAP and Agricultural Policies

Animals should be kept so they can live their life according to their natural needs and behaviour. The animals’ well-being is the basis for good animal health and good farm economics. The general principles are:

  • Allowing animals to display their natural behaviour: Animals can display their natural behaviours only if their living conditions replicate key features of their native habitat, with the necessary space and provisions. Organic systems have low stocking densities, outdoor access, and freedom of movement for animals.
  • Welfare before productivity: Breeding programmes in organic agriculture aim at a holistic approach, balancing productivity, longevity, adaption to environmental conditions and conservation of biodiversity. Organic farmers typically prefer life-time productivity of their animals rather than yearly productivity.
  • Preserving the health of animals’ environment: If too many animals are kept per hectare of farmland, the farm ecosystem cannot absorb the manure the animals generate. Excess manure could end up in groundwater or the atmosphere. The EU nitrates directive has addressed this problem, but organic systems are still the best performers. Limited stocking densities on organic farms secure a balanced nutrient supply to soil and plants without harming the environment.
  • A systemic approach to controlling and preventing disease: Except for vaccines, organic farmers do not use preventive allopathic medication. Instead, they strengthen the immune system of their animals through careful hygiene, combined with a husbandry and feeding regime adapted to animals’ needs, following a system-based approach. If necessary, individual animals may be treated curatively to safeguard their welfare. The organic approach to disease control and prevention avoids overuse of medication. In turn, this prevents side effects, residual antibiotics in meat and dairy, and resistant pathogens.
  • Ensuring a balanced organic diet for animals: organic livestock shall graze in organic grassland whenever the weather conditions allow it. Organic animals should be fed with organic or in-conversion feed suitable for animals’ nutritional requirements during the different stages of their development. Non-organic feed materials can only be used if they are authorised in the Organic Regulation. Depending on the species of animals, between 30 and 70% of the feed should come directly from the farm itself, or in cooperation with other producers and operators from the same region.
  • Routine management practices that can be painful, such as mutilations, are banned in organic farming. Exceptionally, a few practices are allowed on case-by-case basis if they improve the health, welfare or hygiene of the livestock or where workers’ safety would otherwise be compromised. An example of such practices exceptionally allowed through an authorization of the Competent Authority is dehorning.

IFOAM Organics Europe:

  • Contributes to the health and well-being of farm animals. Through its work on the EU Organic Regulation, IFOAM Organics Europe supports initiatives aiming to improve animal health and welfare across Europe;
  • And works with its members to better define our positions on animal welfare labelling and animal welfare standards.

Useful links:

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Gateway to animal welfare

Legal framework

Ongoing processes

Public Consultation on the revision of the EU legislation on animal welfare (open until 21 January 2022): It aims at checking the fitness of the current rules on animal welfare standards at farm level, during the transport and time of killing in order to revise the legislation. A legislative proposal from the Commission is expected for the last quarter of 2023.

Evaluation of EU animal welfare strategy (2012-2015): The 2012-2015 EU Strategy for Protection and Welfare of Animals aims to improve animal welfare standards and ensure their application and enforcement. In 2018, the European Court of Auditors recommended an evaluation of this strategy. The European Commission followed these recommendations and will assess how the strategy delivered on its objectives and if they are relevant and consistent today. The evaluation will also look at the strategy’s efficiency and whether it complements national efforts in this field. It will also include legislation on animal transport and slaughter. During the last quarter of 2020 we expect the European Commission to propose a revision of the rules based on the evaluation’s outcomes.

EU regulation 2018/848 on organic production and labelling of organic products: This regulation will replace EU regulation 834/2007 from 2021 onwards. The basic legal act has been put forward, but implementing and delegated acts are still pending. Like the current legislation, it will cover organic production rules for livestock and animal welfare.

Legislative background

EU regulation 834/2007 and EU regulation 889/2008 on organic production and labelling of organic products (implemented until 31 December 2021)

Animal welfare Strategy 2012-2015: Identifies main common drivers affecting the welfare status of animals, for example lack of enforcement of EU legislation by the Member States, and proposes strategic actions based on two complementary approaches: simplification of EU legislative framework and various further actions by the Commission.

Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing
: Lays down rules for killing animals bred or kept for the production of food, wool, skin, fur or other products.

Council Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations
: Regulates the transport of live animals between EU countries and provides for checks on animals entering or leaving the EU. The rules aim to prevent injury or unnecessary suffering to the animals.

Council Directive 98/58 on the protection of animals kept for farming purposes: Reflects the so called five freedoms:

  • freedom from hunger and thirst
  • freedom from discomfort
  • freedom from pain
  • freedom to express normal behaviour
  • freedom from fear and distress
Projects IFOAM Organics Europe is involved in

The ‘Replacement of Contentious Inputs in Organic Farming Systems’ (RELACS) project looks into safe tools and technologies to phase out inputs considered contentious in organic farming. Two of the project work packages look into providing solutions to support livestock health and welfare. Namely by searching for alternatives to anthelmintics and antibiotics use.

Financial supporters

Replacement of Contentious Inputs in Organic Farming Systems’ (RELACS) has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 773431. The information contained in this communication only reflects the author’s view.

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